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Full text of "Stories of the statues"

N14 





7- 



1. The Venus of Melos. 




Newark, N. J. 

The ) Newark Museum Association 
L913 




UNIVERSITY i) 

OT J 



EXCHANGE 

2 The Newark Museum Association 

The Most Beautiful Goddess Venus. 

Almost a hundred years ago, workmen were dig- 
ging up the ground in a cave on the little island of 
Melos, not far from the coast of Greece, and found 
this statue, where it had been placed many hundreds 
of years before. 

In that early time the Greeks were very fond of all 
beautiful things and they carved, often with very 
great skill, statues of the gods and goddesses they 
loved and worshipped. They built large and magnifi- 
cent temples of many-colored marbles in which to 
place these statues, where they burned incense before 
them and sacrificed young animals in their honor. 

Loving all beauty, it was the goddess of beauty 
they loved most of all, and they said to each other : 
"We must carve the most beautiful statue we can for 
the goddess we love the most." It was this statue 
among many others, that they then carved. 

A French official at Constantinople heard of its 
great beauty and said : "I must take that statue as a 
present to^my king." He went to Melos, bought it 
abcf :tqcjk tt to Paris. The king, Louis XVIII, was 
pleaded. at jeteiving so beautiful a gift. He put it into 

- 



at- Paris, called the Louvre, where his peo- 
ple could see it every day. 

There it still stands. Many copies of it have been 
made in bronze, marble and plaster, so that people all 



Venus of Melos 



over the world can see it and now we in Newark 
also. 

No one knows who took the statue out of its temple 
and put it in the cave. It is thought that, at a time 
when most men in that region came to prize the 
value of marble as mere stone or as something they 
could burn to make lime, more than their gods and 
the beauty that had been carved into statues, some 
one, who still loved beautiful things, hid this Venus 
in a cave, that she might not be destroyed or carried 
away. All this happened over a thousand years ago. 
The statue is thought to be now about two thousand 
years old. 



Venus is the goddess of love and beauty and the 
mother of little Cupid. She was born on the crest of 
a wave. The ocean nymphs at once fell in love with 
the beautiful baby and took her to their home 
beneath the waves, where they cared for her ten- 
derly until she grew up. 

When she was old enough to leave them and go to 
Mount Olympus, the home of all the gods, the 
Nymphs chose a beautiful shell, large enough for her 
to stand in and called upon Triton and Nereids, serv- 
ants of Neptune the Sea-god, to draw it over the 
water to the shore. The wind goddess, Zephyr, blew 
a gentle breeze to waft her along, and thus she came, 
not to Mount Olympus, but to the Island of Cyprus. 



854245 



4 The Newark Museum Association 

Every one on the shore bowed down before her great 
beauty and the dwellers on Cyprus admired her so 
much that they made sacred to her their cities with 
their temples and altars and their groves. 

She lived for a time on Cyprus, but reached Olym- 
pus at last. Here she became the wife of Vulcan, and 
was always escorted by Cupids and Graces when she 
walked about. 

But after some years she left the home of the gods 
and came down to earth to show her beauty to man- 
kind. Being the goddess of beauty and love, she 
gave her aid to all lovers and often sent her little 
son Cupid to shoot his arrows into the hearts of obsti- 
nate youths and maidens to make them fall in love. 



Venus had a kind heart and always meant to make 
people happy, but sometimes she made mistakes. 
Indeed, she was once so vain that she caused an 
entire city to be destroyed. 

It all came about at a wedding at which Venus and 
many other gods and goddesses were guests. An 
ugly goddess, however, had not been invited and, to 
cause discord among those who were enjoying them- 
selves so much, she threw among them an apple, on 
which were written the words, "For the fairest." 

Of course each goddess thought the apple was 
meant for her and each tried to pick it up- and then 
the trouble began! 



Venus of Melos 



All agreed at last that Juno or Minerva or Venus 
should have it, but no one could say which. It was 
decided that they must go to a beautiful shepherd 
named Paris, who tended his flocks on Mt. Ida, and 
ask him to select the fairest. 

The three goddesses set forth, each eager to appear 
beautiful to the judge. Minerva came in glittering 
armor and promised the youth great wisdom if she 
won the prize. Juno, the queen of the gods, put on 
her royal robes and offered him endless wealth and 
power if he would award the apple to her. Venus 
buckled about her the magic belt which made every- 
one unable to resist the charm of her beauty. She 
whispered to Paris that if he chose her she would 
give him a bride as fair as herself. Paris did not 
consider long. He was overcome by her great 
beauty and by the thought of a bride as beautiful. 
He handed her the apple, and thus gained the hatred 
of Minerva and Juno. 

The promised bride was Helen, fairest of all 
women, and already the wife of King Menelaus. As 
Venus had promised, she left Menelaus and went 
with Paris, who proved to be a son of King Priam, to 
Troy, his father's famous city. Menelaus called on 
his fellow kings of Greece to help him bring Helen 
back. They besieged Troy for ten years, and at last 
captured and burnt it. And thus Venus, through the 
lovely Helen, caused a fair city to be destroyed. 



6 The Newark Museum Association 

If the arms of this statue of Venus had not been 
broken off when it was hidden in the cave, how 
would they appear? Perhaps the goddess would have 
been leaning on a shield or holding up her drapery; 
no one knows. They may have been raised to smooth 
her hair before setting forth to win the golden apple, 
for the poet Cowper tells us, 

"Venus oft with anxious care 
Adjusted twice a single hair." 




Map of Greece and the ^gean Sea, showing 
the location of Melos. 



Venus of Melos 



The Museum's Collection of Sculptures. 
The collection of casts of the Newark Museum 
Association was bought of P. P. Caproni and Brother, 
of Boston, Mass. There are sixty pieces and they 
represent several periods and schools of sculpture, 
from ancient Assyrian to Italian Rennaissance. They 
were installed in May, 1913, in one of the rooms on 
the fourth floor of the Library Building, which was 
decorated especially for the purpose by the painter 
Mr. Max Weber of New York. Other casts about 
which stories are to be published are : 

King Assur-bani-pal and his Lion Hunt. 

The Greek Charioteer. 

The Sphinx. 

The Hero Achilles. 

Greek Memorials to the Dead. 

Brutus, an Untrue Friend. 

The Parthenon, a Greek Temple. 

The Italian Singers. 

Castor, the Horse-tamer. 




THE VENUS OF MELOS 



1916 



Stories of the Statues 



2. The Lion Hunt 




Newark, N. J. 

The (Newark Museum Association 
1914 





Ashurbanipal and His Lion Hunt 

Over two thousand years ago there ruled over 
Assyria, a country to the east of Egypt, a king 
named Ashurbanipal. His father, whose name was 
Esarhaddon, died when Ashurbanipal was a young 
man and left him his country to rule over. It was 
a hard task to rule a country at that time, for all 
kings then liked to go to war to show their bra- 
very. And Assyria had many enemies on every 
side. The most dreaded of these were the Medes 
and the Babylonians. 

Like all the other kings, Ashurbanipal was war- 
like, too. He was not content to fight only when 
enemies came to attack him. He made long war 
journeys into other countries. He went to Egypt 
and capcured Memphis and Thebes more than once; 
he marched into Babylonia, also, and fought against 
his own brother. He was cruel in victories. It is 
said that when he captured other kings or princes 
of high birth, he would harness them to his war 
chariot and let them pull him many hundreds of 
miles on his way back to Assyria. 



The Lion Hunt 



But, unlike other warlike kings of those days, 
Ashurbanipal did much for his country besides con- 
quering other lands. He and his father were great 
builders. Esarhaddon, his father, had ten palaces 
built and thirty-six temples. Ashurbanipal did not 
build as many; but he did erect a palace at Nine- 
veh which was very famous. He had it made of 
bricks. There is no building stone in Assyria, 
which is a flat, sandy country without many hills. 

Ashurbanipal had earth heaped up to form a huge 
mound on which to set his palace, so that it would 
be higher than all the houses round about, and 
could be seen from a great distance. His prisoners 
of war built his hill and did the brick laying on 
his palace. In his day all prisoners of war became 
slaves and worked for their captors. Among these 
prisoners were many Arab chieftains. 

On the top floor of this palace Ashurbanipal ar- 
ranged his library. Not many people could read at 
that time and there were not many books. Ashur- 
banipal loved books and had his slaves copy many 
of the old ones of his kingdom and some of the 
books he had taken in war from the Babylonians. 
They were copied, not as we do it now by printing ; 
but were scratched on prepared skins with a reed. 

The walls of the rooms of his palace he deco- 
rated with marble statues and carved reliefs. And, 
to add to his own fame, most of these pictured 
events in his own life, showing his bravery in war, 



The Newark Museum Association 



his magnificent feasts at court, or his elaborate 
hunting parties. 

It is mostly from these carvings on Ashurbani- 
pal's walls, and on walls elsewhere in Assyria, 
that we know so much about the Assyrians of those 
times. If histories were written then, they have not 
come down to us. We know how they lived, what 
their furniture, tools and clothing were like and how 
they looked. We know about their religion, their 
daily habits and their wars, and even much about 
their thoughts and superstitions. 

In the first relief, of the king and queen banquet- 
ing in a garden, we can learn much about the king 
and his people. We see the king reclining upon a 
couch while the queen sits upon a chair. The 
chairs and table were of bronze, inlaid with ivory 
and lapis lazuli, a beautiful green stone. We can 
see the pattern on the queen's robe and the fringe 
of the coverlet covering the king's knee. In all 



I 



t! 



r 



Assyrian carvings the legs of the furniture have 
always the same finish, the claw of a lion or ante- 
lope resting upon a fir-cone. Only kings, queens or 



The Lion Hunt 



gods sat on chairs; common people sat on stools. 

We can see that slaves of the king are all smooth- 
shaven. Only kings and princes wore beards, and 
were so proud of them that they always curled 
them elaborately. Slaves behind the king are fan- 
ning him diligently to keep him cool. 

We know, too, from this scene that Ashurbani- 
pal was a cruel king. If you will look closely at 
the next to the last tree on the left side you will 
see the head of one of his enemies tied to a branch. 
It must be a victory over one of his foes that 
Ashurbanipal is celebrating, and the head reminds 
him pleasantly of his conquest. A slave at the end 
of the line is making music on a harp. 






'--- 



The most famous of the carvings that covered 
the walls of the palace at Nineveh are those of the 
lion hunt. From them we know that Ashurbanipal 
was very fond of hunting lions and that he went 



6 The Newark Museum Association 

about it more as if he were going to fight a power- 
ful human enemy than a poor lion. 

Everyone is up at sunrise ready to start, for they 
have a long way to go before they reach the place 
where the lions are. The slaves must first get the 
chariot ready for the king's use, sharpen the arrows 
and put them in the quiver tied to the side of the 
car. They must also stand a second bow inside, in 
case the first one breaks. Look at the chariot and 
you can see all these things. 

When all is ready, the king enters his chariot 
and leads the procession. Then come princes and 
nobles in their chariots, then many lancers on 
horseback and many slaves on foot leading dogs, 
and others leading mules laden with food and tents. 
Then come men with the horses that the king and 
nobles will use in the hunt. 

When they find a lion the king will aim at it 
from the chariot; but that is dangerous sport, for 
the chariot is open at the back and the lion can 
easily spring upon the king. But Ashurbanipal is 
brave and surely would like to meet a lion almost 
single-handed. In one of our reliefs we see him 
about to shoot an arrow from his chariot. 

The next day, after camping in the lion country, 
the king and nobles mount their horses, as we see 
them in the next carving, and the hunt begins. 
Slaves rush about, find and arouse a lion, and then 
the huntsmen go after it. Sometimes, if their 
arrows miss or fail to kill they must follow the 



The Lion Hunt 



wounded animal a great distance. One after the 
other king and nobles shoot their arrows into him 
until he can run no further and falls dead. 




When the chase is over the king gives thanks 
for his success to the great god Asshur, as we can 
see in the fourth relief. Slaves place the lion in 
the center of the group; the king takes a cup of 
wine from the priest, touches it with his lips and 
pours the wine over the lion while musicians, stand- 
ing by, play on their harps a hymn of praise. 

Ashurbanipal is very proud. He will now drive 
home in his chariot and his people will rush to the 
gates of Nineveh to meet him and will cry out that 
he is a great king. And when Ashurbanipal gets 
into his palace, he will call his chief builder to him 
and say ; " I, Ashurbanipal, wish you to carve upon 
marble the events of this great day." And it was 
done, and that is how it happens that we know so 
much about one of King Ashurbanipal's lion hunts. 

The sculptors of Greece were able to carve much 
more beautiful statues than the Assyrians for they 



8 The Newark Museum Association 

were more educated and full of the love of beauti- 
ful things. The Venus of Melos, as we know, is 
one of their most beautiful statues. 

Ashurbanipal's sculptors, however, were able to 
carve better than the ones who lived under the 
kings before him. See the vines and palm trees 
under which the king and queen are banqueting. 
Each leaf and bunch of grapes is very carefully 
carved. And in the hunting scenes how much 
movement there is! How fast the horses are gal- 
loping! The king in the chariot is in action, too, 
for he is about to shoot his arrow. Sculptors be- 
fore this time could only carve people who were 
seated or standing still. 

About twenty years after Ashurbanipal had died, 
Nineveh was captured by his great enemies, the 
Medes and Babylonians. The palace with its 
large library and its carvings was destroyed. As 
no one cared to rebuild, it lay in ruins many hun- 
dreds of years until sand blew over it and trees 
and bushes grew over it and it was entirely buried. 
In 1852 English explorers dug away the earth to 
see what the old palace was like. We can still see 
some of the walls and the plan of the rooms; but 
those four carvings and others were taken to Eng- 
land and put in the British Museum in London. 
Many copies of them have been made in marble 
and plaster, and from some of the latter we here 
in Newark can see and read the story of King 
Ashurbanipal and his Lion Hunt. 



JAN 10 M 



Stories of the Statues 

3. The Greek Charioteer 




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A x i s >T n A i K n 
SH.i > T O 

- ' . \ ' -. "\' x 



The Charioteer of Delphi. Bronze probably by Calamis, fifth century 
B. C. Found in 1896 and now in the Museum at Delphi 



. Newark, N. J. 
Tha Newark Museum Association 
1 1915 



The Greek Charioteer 

In the central part of Greece in the province of 
Phocis was once a large and beautiful city, called 
Delphi. Its years of growth and importance extended 
from about 1000 B. C., to about 400 A. D. As time 
went on it was destroyed by many wars and its treas- 
ures and statues were carried off, one after another, 
by its conquerors. Then its people left it ; earth, trees 
and bushes came to cover it, and finally the new vil- 
lage of Kastri was built where it had stood. 

Twenty years ago, students of ancient Greece came 
from France and began to dig out what was left of the 
old city. Their workmen uncovered the walls of large 
palaces and of magnificent temples and monuments, 
tombs and many statues. 

One of the most beautiful of these statues thus 
found is the "Charioteer of Delphi." The chariot 
and horses were broken to tiny bits and could not be 
put together. The left arm of the charioteer, too, 
was missing. But even broken, it is still one of the 
most beautiful of the few beautiful statues, made by 
the ancient Greeks, that have come down to us. It is 
kept with great care in the Museum at Delphi. In the 
Newark Museum there is a copy of it in plaster that 
we can see and enjoy. 

The story of the way this statue came to Delphi is 
very interesting: 

Delphi was one of the favorite cities of the Greeks. 
In it there was a rich temple, sacred to Apollo, one of 
the gods they loved the most. Apollo, they thought, 
was able to tell them what was going to happen. He 
could tell kings, for example, whether or no they 
would win battles ; and to any inquirer whether he 
would be rich and happy, or poor and miserable. The 



2 The Newark Museum Association 

people therefore paid Apollo great respect. They 
built him a magnificent temple and brought to him 
treasures and beautiful things to win his favor. 




Map showing the location of Delphi on the slopes of Mt. Parnassus 

Delphi thus became one of the richest and most 
beautiful cities in Greece. 

The Greek people built the temple to Apollo quite 
high on the slopes of Mount Parnassus and facing the 
sea so that it could be seen for miles around. The 
front of it was of shining Parian marble. A winding 



The Greek Charioteer 



road, called the Sacred way, led up to it, and this was 
lined on both sides with treasure houses containing 
money and jewels, costly weapons and armor, splen- 
did garments and vases of all kinds, captured by rich 
kings in war and brought as gifts to Apollo. 



About 470 years before Christ lived, there was a king 
in Syracuse, a Greek colony on the island of Sicily near 
Italy, whose name was Hieron. When he was young 
he cared only for wars and ruled his people like a 
tyrant. But as he grew older he came to care less for 
war and power and more for the arts and pleasures 
of peace. He became the friend of writers and sculp- 
tors, and if he found a man of talent whom he thought 
worthy, he would give him money to live on, or bring 
him to the court at Syracuse so that he could spend 
his time in painting or writing or carving statues. 
One of the men he thus found was a sculptor named 
Calamis. 

Calamis lived a long time at Hieron's court. He 
carved especially well figures of horses, and an old 
writer tells us he once made in bronze a charioteer 
standing in a chariot and guiding his horses. 

Hieron had a younger brother, Polyzalos, of whom 
he was very proud. At his brother's command, Poly- 
zalos was trained to run and jump by the great 
trainers in Greece ; and, being a youth of noble birth, 
he was also taught to race in the chariot, for that was 
considered one of the most manly sports the son of a 
king could take part in. 

These and other facts have led students of history 
and art to think that Calamis made the statue of the 
Charioteer, that it is perhaps a portrait of Polyzalos, 
and that King Hieron sent it to the temple of Delphi 
as a gift to Apollo because Polyzalos had won a very 



The Newark Museum Association 



1 r^r? is-JLiU^^S^*"-^ ; '. I r, '*'' "7^ lc,-| 

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Map of the precinct of Apollo at Delphi. The Games were held in 

the Stadium northwest of the city. The Charioteer was 

found beside the Sacred Way on the upper terrace 



The Greek Charioteer 



important race. If you will look at the map of the city 
you will see that the statue was found close to the 
temple and beside the Sacred way. 

Delphi was such an important city that festivals, 
called the Pythian games, to which thousands came 
from all parts of Greece, were held there every four 
years. The games were held in honor of the god 
Apollo and lasted four days. They were so important 
that if a war was being waged when the date for the 
games came round, a truce was declared, and any who 
took part in the games were permitted to travel to and 
from Delphi in safety. 

On the morning of the first day a procession was 
held of all the guests of honor, the foreign kings, en- 
voys from the Greek states in their splendid chariots, 
priests, officials and the men and boys who were to 
take part in the games. All along the Sacred way up 
to the temple, the doors of the treasuries were opened 
and the rich treasures inside glittered in the sunlight. 
In the temple sacrifices were made to the god Apollo, 
to Artemis, his sister and to Leto, his mother. Here 
those who were to take part in the games, swore on a 
sacred urn that they were free-born and that they had 
never committed a crime. Here also they drew lots 
for their places in the races. Then the procession 
went to the stadium, northwest of the city, where the 
people were gathered, waiting for the games to begin. 

On the first day musical concerts were held. Songs 
were sung accompanied by flute and cithara. A con- 
certo was also played describing in music the fight of 
Apollo with the dragon, Pytho, the incident from which 
the festival took its name. 

On the second day were the gymnastic events, run- 
ning, jumping, wrestling and boxing and trials of 
strength. 



6 The Newark Museum Association 

On the third day, races on horseback and in chariots 
were run. Let us go with Polyzalos on the day he is 
to drive in the race. 



It is early in the morning of a hot August day. Al- 
ready the roads leading to the stadium are full of 
hurrying men and boys for women were not allowed 
to attend the games. Peddlers with their goods, jug- 
glers and poets with their poems run along beside the 
crowd crying their wares in the hope of making a 
penny now and then. 

Here and there are groups of people in chariots, en- 
voys from the various states, bearing offerings to the 
temple; behind them is perhaps a sick man on a litter, 
coming with a gift to the god Apollo with the hope of 
being cured. 

On horseback are the kings of the Greek states, their 
horses gleaming in their rich trappings. One of these 
is surely Hieron, the brother of Polyzalos, eager and 
anxious. 

Polyzalos hurries along through the crowd, for if he 
is late the servants of the judges of the race, called 
the Amphictyons, will not allow him to take part. Al- 
ready most of the seats are filled and still the crowds 
pour in through all the entrances. 

At one end, in a box high up and in view of all, the 
judges in their purple robes have already taken their 
places. Below them the races start and finish. 

Polyzalos hastily changes his short chiton or tunic 
for the long garment worn by charioteers. His ser- 
vants have already harnessed the horses to the chariot 
just as you see them in the illustration from a vase- 
painting. The owner of the chariot is holding the 
reins, the charioteer is standing behind the horses and 
and two slaves are about to harness the third horse. 



The Greek Charioteer 



MMMVaWW&WWVWV^^ 




Greek chariot. From an old Greek vase painting 

When all is in readiness Polyzalos drives out into 
the arena, where the other charioteers are already 
moving slowly around the course. Their chariots 
take their places at the starting point, and await the 
sound of the trumpets. As these sound, a bronze 
dolphin falls from its high place near the chariots* 
and an eagle, till then resting on an altar, rises into 
the air with extended wings. At this sign the bar- 
riers drop and the horses dash over the line. Twelve 
times they must pass around the course before the 
goal is reached. 

We hope that Polyzalos won this race. If he did, 
he was crowned with a wreath of laurel, the tree 
sacred to Apollo, and a herald announced his name 
and the names of his father and of his native city. 
Then he was applauded by the thousands of people 
from all Greece and, when he returned home, was 
again honored for being a victor in the great Pythian 
games and bringing fame and glory to his native city. 



8 The Newark Museum Association 

After all the events were finished, banquets were 
held throughout the city and feasting continued far 
into the night. A special banquet was held for the 
victors at the town hall, at which songs were sung 
about the great feats at games of former years. For 
1000 years these famous festivals were regularly held 
and shared in by all the Greek peoples. 

A Greek poet named Pindar spent four years at 
Hieron's court. He wrote four books of odes about 
the great festivals of Greece and four of the odes 
tell of the victories of Hieron and his horse, Phereni- 
kos. These odes have come down to us and you can 
read them in charming English translations. 



List of Books 

Home Life of the Ancient Greeks. Hugo Bliimner, 
1910. 

Greek Athletic Sports and Festivals. E. N. Gardiner, 
1910. 

Three Greek Children. A. J. Church, London, 1890. 
Old Greek Education. J. P. Mahaffy, New York. 

Stories of Ancient Greeks. Charles D. Shaw, Boston, 
1903. 

Greece. James A. Harrison, New York, 1885. 
Greek History. Alice Zimmern, New York, 1908. 

The Story of the Greek People. E. M. Tappan, Bos- 
ton, 1908. 



EXCHANGE 
MIN 4 



Stories of the Statues 

4. Bartolommeo Colleoni: A Statue 
by Verocchio 




The Colleoni Statue. The original bronze stands in the Campo Santi 

Giovanni e Paolo in Venice. A perfect copy in bronze, executed 

under the direction of the sculptor J. Massey Rhind, 

was presented by a citizen to the city 

of Newark, in 1916. 



This picture is a reproduction of part of an engraving 
by Rudolph Ruzicka. 



Newark, N. J. 

I J If ON IV 

The Newark Museum Association \\ 

1917 




NOTE OF EXPLANATION 

The Newark Museum Association is trying to discover 
what kinds of museum objects and what kinds of museum 
activities Newark likes, and needs, and will find useful, 
and will use. 

It believes that one of the things it can do to give pleasure 
to Newarkers, and to make their lives more interesting, is to 
treat some of the best things in the city, like -parks, trees, 
fountains, sculptures, buildings, and industries, as if they 
were parts of its own collections. Acting on this belief it 
publishes this pamphlet on Newark's most beautiful sculpture, 
the Colleoni, and makes the pamphlet one in the series it is 
issuing on the sculptures plaster casts, and bronzes in 
its own collection. In this series, called "Stories of the 
Statues," have already appeared: I. The Venus of Melos; 
2. The Lion Hunt; and 3. The Charioteer of Delphi. 

Because the Museum Association believes it is better for the 
city to interest the children in good sculpture than it is to try 
to interest adults in it; and because it finds it much easier thus 
to interest the former than the latter, all these stories have 
been written with the intent to make them attractive to young 
people. It does not surprise us to learn that many adults 
have found all of them quite interesting. 

The Lion Hunt, a cast of an Assyrian relief, is now at the 
Belmont Avenue School. A copy in plaster of the Colleoni^ 
small but full of the same fiery energy which possesses the 
original, is soon to go to the same school, and this is to be 
followed by The Charioteer and others. In several schools, 
in the next few months, will be found other beautiful and 
interesting pieces of sculpture, all coming from the collection 
which formerly filled a hall on the fourth floor of the library 
building. To make room for other things, the museum being 
much crowded in its present quarters, this modest sculpture 
hall had to be dismantled. It seemed that no better use could 
be found for the casts which composed it than to place them 
where the young people of the city could see them every day. , 

April, /p/7- /. C. Dana, Director. 




Bronze copy of the Colleoni presented to the city by a citizen of Newark 
and placed in a park at the head of Clinton Avenue. 



The Colleoni: One of the Two Greatest 
Equestrian Statues in the World. 

An equestrian statue is a statue of a man or a 
woman on horseback. There are many equestri- 
an statues, partly because statues are apt to 
be made of generals and other cavalry officers, 
whom it seems natural to put on horses, and 




The horse and rider seen from the left side; from a photo- 
graph of the original statue in Venice. 



partly because a finely formed man sitting well 
on a handsome horse is a beautiful sight. It 



THE COLLEONI 




The horse's head; from a photograph of the statue in Venice. 



stands in our minds for great physical power 
skillfully controlled by great intelligence. 

This Colleoni statue is considered one of the 
two most excellent equestrian statues in the 
world. 

Look for the reasons for so praising it. 



THE COLLEONI 



Is the horse standing still or moving? How 
do we know? What can we tell from the position 
of the eyes? Of the head? The ears? Of the 
tail? Is the horse breathing freely? How do we 




The horse and rider seen from behind; from a photograph 
of the statue in Venice. 



know? Is his skin thin or thick? How do we 
know that? 

Every strong muscle ready to move, each hoof 
striking the ground ready at once to spurn it, 
the uplifted foot drawn up only the better to 



THE COLLEONI 



fling forward, this horse, full of springing 
muscles, ears up, head high, neck arched, tail 
lifted, is the embodiment of strength, and agility, 
the best that nature can do in creating high- 
spirited, eager, graceful force. 

What does the rider wear on his body? His 
head? On what kind of saddle does he sit? 
If he were to receive a hard thrust, how would 
the saddle help him? Does he seem to be 
conscious of his heavy helmet? Is he thinking 
of the horse he rides? Can he control it? 
How do we know that? 

The helmeted and armor-covered soldier, 
fixed in his box-like saddle, is so accustomed 
to the movement of his steed and so used to 
controlling it that he is as unconscious of its 
powerful body beneath him as he is of his own. 
He moves either as he chooses. 

But his mind is full of something else. Look 
at him from the right. From his figure and 
position you will see that he is full of power 
and purpose. He, too, means to go forward, 
Pass behind him, and looking up you will 
understand, "This is a man who does not 
retreat." From the left study his face. It says 
to us, "This man's forefathers thought; that 
gave him his brow. They willed to do; that 
gave him his steady gaze. They never yielded; 
that gave him his firm jaw and mouth. He 
himself has dared and done and borne until his 
cheek is sunken with the coming of age, although 
his body is firm and strong." Those who face 
this soldier see clearly that struggle and power 
have made him stern and commanding. 



THE COLLEONI 



Look at the two together horse and rider, 
warrior and steed and see how they move on 
to victory. 

In the midst of hurried lives, full of business 
or play, the people of Newark glance upward at 
this rider and horse from another country 
and an olden time and wonder, "Was there 
ever a man like that? What is he doing here?" 




The head of the rider; from a photo- 
graph of the original statue. 

The Italians of Newark and those who have 
visited Italy know that he came from Venice. 
He was an Italian soldier who died seventeen 
years before Columbus discovered America. 



10 THE COLLEONI 



In those days each city of Italy with the land 
around it and the people in it was a sovereign 
state. It could make war without consulting 
anybody. In this country to-day not even a 
big state like New York can make war or peace; 
that belongs to the Congress of the whole 
United States. But these Italian cities went to 
war with each other at will. And that led to 
many armies. If New York or Trenton were 
likely to attack Newark at any time, there 
would have to be a Newark army and a general 
of the Newark forces. Colleoni was a general of 
forces in Venice. Shakespeare's Othello, you 
remember, had the same position when Desde- 
mona fell in love with him. 

In those days a general could not sit down 
several miles behind the trenches and order 
by telephone the firing of his guns. He led his 
forces. He was a fierce fighter. And in those 
days a soldier was not a clerk or a salesman 
enlisted for a few years. He was a soldier all 
the time. One who thus spent his life in fighting 
and rose to leadership must be the greatest 
iighter of them all. This was Colleoni. 

The strangest thing about Colleoni as a fighter 
is that he was a mercenary fighter, a man who 
fought for pay, a "soldier of fortune." That is 
to say, he fought for the city that hired him, 
not for the city of his birth, or in which he had 
chosen to live. He might even fight for one 
city at one time, and then accept a position 
as general of the forces of the very city which he 
had formerly attacked. Like a lawyer to-day, 
he took up the cause of the side that hired him. 




The original statue as it looks in Venice. One condition was attached 
to the bequest Colleoni left to Venice that this statue of himself for 
which his money was to pay, be erected on the Piazza San Marco, 
the finest Square in Venice. This would be an honor never paid to any 
man, and so the statue was placed in front of the school of St. Mark, called 
the Scuola di San Marco. 



12 



THE COLLEONI 



But for the last thirty years of his life he 
fought for Venice. There he had large estates, 
and was very rich. 




The equestrian statue of Gattamelata: this statue by Donatello, 
and the Colleoni by Verocchio are said to be the two greatest equestrian 
statues in the world. A small copy in bronze is owned by the Newark 
Museum. 



Although Colleoni was haughty and fought 
fiercely, he was not a cruel conqueror, destroying 
the country through which he passed. And 
during the last thirty years of his life, while he 
served Venice alone, as general of her forces, 
he spent much time in cultivating the land on 



THE COLLEONI 13 



the estates which Venice had given him as a 
reward for his services. 

He died, leaving money to Venice for use in a 
war which she was then fighting, and he asked 
that some of this money should be spent on a 
statue of himself. 

Two different sculptors were employed to 
make the statue, and their admirers dispute as 
to which really was responsible for its greatness. 

Verocchio (Va-rok'ke-o) was the best pupil of 
Donatello and of Luca della Robbia, whom we 
know for his charming bambinos, or babes in 
swaddling clothes. He got the order for the 
statue first. His name means, the true eye. 
We say, in English, verily, for truly, veracity for 
truth; and we go to the oculist to have our eyes 
examined. Verocchio was a goldsmith, then a 
painter, then a sculptor. He is noted for a 
wonderful little statue of David. 

Leopardi (La-6-par-de) was an architect and 
sculptor. He was an exile when Verocchio died, 
having been banished for forgery; but everyone 
was afraid lest the statue should be ruined if it 
were touched by any but a master hand, so 
Leopardi was pardoned, returned to Venice, 
and completed Verocchio's work. 

The friends of Verocchio say that he completed 
the modeling of both horse and rider, and that 
Leopardi merely cast the statue and made its 
base. For statues are usually made out of clay, 
by the sculptor, and then copied, sometimes in 
larger size, either in stone or in metal which is 
poured, when hot, into a mould, and hardened 
by cooling. 




This is the bronze statue that Verocchio made of 
the shepherd lad David who slew the giant Goliath 
with a sling and stone. (I Samuel; xvii). Veroc- 
chio's David is young and slender, strong and full of 
faith. He has conquered beasts and giants in 
defense of the right. Compare him with Colleoni. 



THE COLLEONI 1 5 



The friends of Leopard! say that Verocchio 
modeled only the horse, and made some sketches 
of the rider he meant to put on it, and that 
Leopardi improved the horse, made sketches 
after Verocchio's plan for the rider, and modeled 
both it and the pedestal completely. They say 
the modeling is bolder than Verocchio's, who had 
a delicate style due to his goldsmith's training. 

The fact that Leopardi signed his name on the 
saddle girth is regarded by his friends as proof 
that he really was responsible for the whole thing; 
but Verrccchio's friends say that only shows that 
Leopardi was never cured of his tendency to 
forgery. 

It is a common practice for cities to put 
statues in their parks and other open spaces. 
These statues are usually of great men belonging 
to the country, the state or the city, or famous for 
some great service to humanity. There are 
statues of Washington and Lincoln in many 
American cities. Newark has a statue of Seth 
Boyden, of whose memory she is proud. The 
Italians of New York gave the city a statue of 
Columbus. Those who believe in homeopathic 
medicine have put in a park in Washington, 
D.C., a monument to Hahnemann who was the 
founder of that method. 

Generally these statues are made by the best 
sculptors whom people know how to get for the 
money they can pay. The statue of Lincoln in 
Newark was modeled by Gutzon Borglum; 
the statue of Washington by J. Massey Rhind. 
Both of these sculptors are living in America. 



16 THE COLLEONI 



In a few cases, however, cities have put up 
copies of statues in other places. In Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, there is a statue of the English 
Prince Albert, a copy of one in Liverpool, 
England. Washington, D. C., and Nashville, 
Tennessee, have statues of Andrew Jackson by 
the same artist. But the practice is not usual. 

Neither is it usual to put up a statue just 
because of its beauty. When Liberty Enlighten- 
ing the World was set up in New York harbor 
she was made as beautiful as possible. But it 
was Liberty, not Beauty that was wanted. 

In the case of the Colleoni, Newark did not 
say, "We need a statue for this park. What 
shall it be?" 

Indeed, after the statue was ready there was 
much discussion as to the place for it. 

Nor did they say, "We want to honor this man. 
How shall we do it?" Only Italians or students 
of history knew about Colleoni. 

What they did say was, "We have a statue of 
Washington, made by a modern sculptor in our 
city. Let us set up here a copy of the finest 
equestrian statue in the world. If no one ever 
makes a better, we will have the best. If some- 
one some day makes a better, we shall have 
helped to make the people appreciate it, for 
in looking at our Colleoni people will have been 
trained in good taste." 

But after all Colleoni is a good subject for 
a Newark statue. One of the speakers at the 
unveiling declared that it "united the vigorous, 
the rich and the growing republic of the west 
with the glorious memory of a republic that 



THE COLLEONI 17 



lasted thirteen hundred years, from the Roman 
Empire to the French Revolution." More- 
over, there will always be in Newark many 
descendants not only of the Puritans who first 
settled here, but of many nations whose people 
followed, and many of these will be of Italian 
blood, the blood that flowed in the veins of 
Colleoni, of Verocchio and of Leopardi. 

This thought that Newark should have a 
Colleoni was first suggested to a citizen of 
Newark at a dinner given to J. Massey Rhind 
after the completion of his Washington Statue. 
He liked the idea. He had lent money to a friend 
who wanted to work in the mines in Africa, and 
he said, "If my friend's venture turns out well, 
I will put up a Colleoni with the money." 
One day, in walked the friend to report that he 
had made money, from a mine, and to pay a 
part of what he had made to this citizen of 
Newark. And so the statue was ordered. 

Now war was then raging in Europe. To get 
a copy of a statue in Venice at this time was 
not easy. And the only mould of the statue, 
in the Royal Museum at Berlin, was just as 
difficult to obtain. But fortunately there was 
a plaster cast, made from this Berlin mould, 
in the Art Institute at Chicago. 

The sculptor, Rhind, used this cast of the 
statue, and copied the pediment. The Clinton 
Ave. site was chosen for it, and it was set in 
place. 

The International Studio, in an article about 
this Newark statue says, "The Bartolommeo 
Colleoni statue will make Newark a Mecca for 



18 THE COLLEONI 



American art lovers if a shell should chance to 
destroy the glorious statue at Venice, erected 
only a year after the adventurous Genoese 
sailor discovered the western world, the Ameri- 
can counterpart would take on a tremendous 
value, not expressed in terms of money." 

The original Colleoni was shown March 21, 
1496; the Newark Colleoni July 26, 1916. 
The original forms one of the chief attractions for 
tourists from all over the world to Venice. 
The Newark copy makes Newark at once one 
of the treasure cities of this continent. 



References 

Books on the History of Sculpture; on the 

Italian Renaissance; on Italian Art with 

special reference to Sculpture; on Venice 

with special reference to Colleoni. 

Florentine Sculptors of the Renaissance. Bode. 

Old Masters and New. Cox. 

Mornings with Masters of Art. Powers. 

Story of Art throughout the Ages. Reinach. 

St. Mark's Rest: a,h history of Venice. Ruskin. 

Stones of Venice. Ruskin. 

Famous Sculpture. Singleton. 

Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini. Symonds. 

Italian Sculptors. Waters. 

Art of the Italian Renaissance. Wafflin. 

Salve Venetia; gleanings from Venetian history. Crawford. 

Story of Venice. Okey. 

Queen of the Adriatic, or Venice, mediaeval and modern. Waters. 

Gautier. Voyage en Italic. 

Hare. Venice. 

Childe Harold's pilgrimage. Byron. 

Italy. Rogers. 



THE COLLEONI 19 



NOVELS LAID IN VENICE IN THE DAYS OF VEROCCHIO 

Marietta, a maid of Venice. Crawford. 
Master mosaic workers. Land. 
Royal Faun of Venice. Turnbull 

FOR YOUNG PEOPLE 

Two books about sculptors and artists and their work: 
Famous Sculpture. Barstow. 
Sketches of Great Painters. Dallin. 

Two stories of Venice at about the time when she made Colleoni 

her general: 

The Lion of St. Mark. Henty. 

Caterina of Venice. In historic Girls, by Brooks. 
A story of the time of General Colleoni in which the hero is an artist 

and goes to Venice: 

The Cloister and the Hearth. Reade. 

POEMS ABOUT VENICE 

On the Extinction of the Venetian Republic. Wordsworth. 

To the Lion of St. Mark. Miller. 

Venice. From Jacopo Sannazzaro, tr. by Addison. 

Venice. Thomson 

Ode to Venice. Byron. 

Venice. Shelley 

At Venice. Clough. 

Venice. Reade. 

Venice. From Giovanni della Casa, tr. by Hemans. 

Venice. From Graf von Platen, tr. by Davidson. 

In my Gondola. Thornbury. 

Meditative Fragments on Venice. Houghton. 

Lido. Houghton. 

Written at Venice. Houghton. 

Venice. From Saverio Bettinelli, tr. by Montgomery. 

Venice by Day. de Vere. 

Venice in the Evening, de Vere. 

The White Flag on the Lagoon Bridge at Venice. From Arnoldo 

Fusinato, tr. by Howells. 
Venice. Reade. 
To Venice. Landor. 
Venice. Arnold. 
Venice. Longfellow. 



nr,T 9 1917 



Stories of the Statues 

5. Egyptian Sculpture: Notes on the casts of a 
few pieces in the Newark Museum. 




King Fsammetichu? 




OF THE x 

UNIVERSITY 

OF . I 



Newark, N. J. 

The Newark Museum Association 
1917 




EGYPTIAN SCULPTURE 




An Egyptian King 

Egyptian Sculpture 

This is Pharaoh, an Egyptian King. Such 
statues were placed before the great tombs 
of the kings in Egypt. Copies like this are 
made of plaster, but the original statues were 
probably carved out of hard stone, although some 
Egyptian statues were of bronze or of baked 
clay. 

If this were a modern statue of an American, 
we should know the name of the sculptor. 
But in olden days, in Egypt, there were great 
numbers of statues made, some of them of 
enormous size, whose makers' names we know 
nothing about. 



EGYPTIAN SCULPTURE 3 

The important thing about each was the 
name of the statue. The spirit, or Ka, that 
used to inhabit his body would come back some 
day and look for its old home. It would not 
find the home it lived in; that would perhaps 
be cheaply built, and long since demolished. 
But it would find the tomb, built during its 
life-time on earth, solid and enduring, perhaps 
carved out of the solid rock. And in the tomb 
it would look for its mummy, or embalmed body. 
Into this it would creep, and live again forever. 

But if, by some mischance, the mummy were 
gone and many an Egyptian Ka will miss its 
mummified body when it returns because 
people have bought them to put in museums- 
then the Ka would look around for an image or 
statue of its former self, and that would do 
about as well as the mummy. The Ka need 
not wander. It would have a body to live in. 

This is one reason why there are so many, 
many statues in the tombs of Egypt. 

If an American sculptor is going to make a 
statue he decides on the size. Shall it be half 
size, full size, or colossal very large? A 
colossal statue with us may be two or three 
times life size, or it may be so large that, as in 
New York's Statue of Liberty, one arm is 
taller than a man. But the Egyptian statues 
were often enormous. Think of the Sphinx, 
over sixty feet high from breast to the top of the 



EGYPTIAN SCULPTURE 




Outline drawing of sculpture in relief, illustrating the very formal 

method of treating the human figure which the 

Egyptians followed. 

head. Rows and rows of these immense statues, 
carved from the hardest rock, by slave labor, 
can be found in Egypt to-day. One might 



EGYPTIAN SCULPTURE 



almost say that the Egyptians turned out statues 
as our newspapers turn out comic pictures. 
But its editions, though fewer, were more lasting. 
Some of them have lasted five thousand years. 

The American artist next decides what atti- 
tude his statue shall take. As you see, the 
Egyptian sculptor had no trouble about that. 
That had been decided by the priests, long ago. 
He must stand, or sit, or squat. He could have 
one foot before the other, or keep them side 
by side, but they must both be flat on the 
ground, and he must bear weight on both. 
He could not be bent at all, either sidewise or 
forward or backward. He must hold his chin 
up, keep his mouth shut, and look to the front. 
His arms might hang or one might rest on his 
knee and one up against his breast, as you see 
in the seated King, or they might be folded. 
But in any case they were stuck fast to him. 

The American sculptor decides whether his 
figure shall have a large or a small head, how his 
hair shall hang, how he shall be dressed. These 
things also were ordered for the sculptor in old 
Egypt. Large ears, set high, hair alike on two 
sides, head just so many times the length of 
the nose, arms so many times the head, body 
and legs just so long there were rules for it all, 
for the statues of both men and women. 

The hard materials out of which the statues 
were generally carved made it necessary they 



EGYPTIAN SCULPTURE 




Antinous, a Roman Statue made in imitation of the Egyptian style 
because Antinous died in Egypt. 

should be simple, and this simplicity was soon 
prescribed by these religious rules. 



EGYPTIAN SCULPTURE 



And yet look at them. Stiff, lean, high- 
shouldered, narrow hipped, with hardly any 
modeling, except at the knees, wonderfully 
similar, yet somehow these Egyptians made so 
many, worked so well, believed so thoroughly 
that they were likely to be dwelt in by their 
old souls, that they made them good portraits. 
The Kas of these two kings will never make any 
mistake and exchange bodies. 

The Bible tells us that when a man looks in 
the mirror and goes away, he straightway for- 
gets what manner of man he is; but every Ka 
who looks among the Egyptian statues for 
his own will know, when he meets the wrong 
one, like the old woman in the tale, "This is 
none of I." 

The skill that this indicates is wonderful. 

Other nations have made queer stiff statues; 
other nations have been bound by religious rules 
to make them just so; other nations have gained 
skill in the use of tools. But no other nation has 
made statues that we would mistake for those of 
Egypt, except in imitation. 

Here is a statuette, a little statue, in imitation 
of Egyptian style. 

It is, however, a Roman statue. In what does 
it resemble the Egyptian statues? How does it 
differ from them? 

The reason the sculptor made it in this style 
is that the young man, Antinous, whom it 



EGYPTIAN SCULPTURE 




represents, died in Egypt. In fact, he was 
drowned in the Nile. 

The story is that when the Roman emperor 
was traveling through Egypt, there was a 
prophecy that he could only avoid a threatened 
danger by the sacrifice of one whom he loved. 
Now Antinous knew that the Emperor loved him 
and so, to save his emperor, he drowned himself 
in the Egyptian river. 

Compare this with the real Egyptian statues: 
the position; the legs; the arms; the feet; the 
hands; the body; the back; the face. 

We seldom see any sculpture nowadays that 
imitates the style of Egypt, but we do often see 
things decorated with Egyptian designs, such 
as are shown on this page. For the Egyptians 
were masters of design making. 



EXCHANGE 

nrr 9 1917 



Stories of the Statues 

6. The Rooster. 




A Rooster by Louis Vidal, a French Sculptor 

Newark, N. J. 

The [Newark Museum Association 
1917 




OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

A - OP 




*: 



/ 



The Rooster 

Every kind of animal has a character of its 
own. The rabbit is called timid, the donkey 
stubborn, the lion noble, the fox clever. Part of 
the aim of the animal painter or sculptor is to 
set forth in his art the character of each animal 
that he paints or models. 

Some people love all animals, and some have 
a peculiar insight into the characters of one 
special kind of animal life. Rosa Bonheur, the 
French painter, loved best to paint horses. 
Madame Ronner painted the luxurious habits 
of the aristocratic Persian cat. 

Louis Vidal, a Frenchman, liked roosters- 
healthy, upstanding, strutting, big -combed, 
plume-tailed, strong-legged, crowing roosters. 
And when we look at the swaggering fellow he 
modeled we know that his maker liked him. 
The arch of his neck, and the curve of his breast, 
the firmness of his tread and the spring of his 
tail, all tell it. 

Vidal was a pupil of Barye, whose lion we all 
know in bronze. He was skillful, for he has 
managed, without trying to carve the details of 
feathers at all, to make us sure that the breast 
of this rooster is soft. 

It is a good thing for those of us who cannot 
go a-hunting wild game, even with the camera, 
who have no zoo, and who do not often have the 



circus in town, that we can see so plainly 
through Vidal's eyes that a rooster may be 
beautiful. 

So may a horse, as we see at least once a year 
when the horses of Newark parade. So may 
the dog that we see daily on the street. So 
may a cat; feed your own well, if you want to 
prove it. And as for birds! 

Some American animal sculptors were raised 
on the western plains, or mountains, like 
Borglum and Proctor; while others picked up 
most of what they knew of animals in cities, 
perhaps in a zoo. 

Most of them got their best ideas about 
putting the characters of the animal they 
studied into their work from France, from the 
work of such artists as the one who made this 
rooster. 

To the true animal artist the very animal 
itself seems to be hidden in the clay or stone, 
or wood, and the artist's task is to get it out by 
taking the useless material away and revealing 
the beautiful hidden thing. 

Mr. Fox, who carved the ivory elephants at 
the Newark Museum, says he feels there are 
elephants in the tusk he works on and that he 
cuts them free! So Vidal must have felt with 
his cock. Get a piece of clay and see if you can 
find your favorite animal hidden in it. If you 
can, you may be a sculptor yourself. Things 
just as strange are happening every day. 



9 1Q17 



Stories of the Statues 

^ 

7. The Boy with the Thorn. 




Newark, N. J. 

The (Newark Museum Association 

1917 



Spinario, or The Thorn 

This boy has caused scholars no end of trouble. 
They can't find out who made him, or when, or 
who lost him, or who found him. They know 
that a bronze figure like this was placed by a 
Pope, named Sixtus, in a collection of statues 
which he made in Rome about twenty years 
before Columbus discovered America. 

When Napoleon conquered Italy he carried 
off the statue; but it was afterward returned. 
And in Italy it has remained. 

But what had happened to it before 1470? 
It is supposed then to have been, at that time, 
almost two thousand years old. No one knows. 

You can read learned essays showing that it 
must have been made at such and such a date; 
as shown by the fact that the sculptors made 
hair in this style, or heads of the shape of this 
one. And one author fixes the date of its making 
by the fact that, although the boy is pulling a 
thorn from his foot which must hurt he is 
not making a face over it! It seems that all 
sculptured faces made over four hundred years 
before Christ were calm like the face of this boy. 

One story about it we know to be untrue, 
but it is a good story and worth taking. It is 
this: About four hundred years ago, in one of 
the old wars of Rome, this shepherd boy was 
sent to Rome to warn the people that the enemy 



was coming, and he ran to the city with a thorn 
in his foot which he never stopped to pull out 
until his message was delivered. The statue 
was therefore called "The Faithful One." 

It is a fine thing that plaster copies can so 
easily be made of the world's great statues. 
For "The Faithful One" or "Spinario" is a 
lovely boy, on whose beautifully modeled figure 
with the curve of its bent back and bowed head 
we like to gaze. 

Many an American student of art who has 
spent years of study and much money in learning 
sculpture would give half of all his future 
earnings if he could hope to be able at last to 
make a figure like this. 

Yet the name of the Greek sculptor is un- 
known, and if the boy was the victor in some 
renowned game in those early days, that, too, 
is unknown. All that is** certain is that this is 
The Boy With a Thorn Spinario. 



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